Increased Water Usage In Unconventional Gas Production
New sources of natural gas and innovative drilling methods have paved the way for production of resources once thought to be cost-prohibitive.
However, production techniques such as shale gas hydraulic fracturing or coal seam gas (CSG) requires millions of gallons of water. As production levels increase, the need to address limited treatment options for the wastewater generated. Long-term sustainability will require reuse and recycling of water resources and by-product recovery while minimizing overall waste volumes from production activities.
Evaporation & Crystallization Technology
Thermal Treatment of Flowback and Produced Water
Veolia has developed specific wastewater treatment process technologies focused on the production of emerging natural gas resources.
One such system, call the CoLD® Process, utilizes thermal evaporation and crystallization technology as the primary treatment for both flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of gas shales.
Offered as a Zero Liquid Waste (ZLW) solution, this unique system is highly efficient in treating wastewaters containing high levels of TDS.
The benefits of the evaporation and crystallization process include:
- Effective removal of sodium and calcium chlorides as well as the heavy metals found in produced water*
- The only waste generated is a solid salt cake, suitable for landfill disposal per TCLP testing requirements*
- Minimizes the cost of pretreatment because calcium removal in the pretreatment step is not necessary*
As a ZLW system, greater than 95% of the effluent is recovered for reuse.
* - Demonstrated using wastewater generated from the Marcellus Shale Gas Play in the Eastern United States
High Water Recovery
The unique OPUS® (Optimized Pretreatment and Unique Separation) Technology is another solution to treat produced water for enhanced recovery. This technology is suited for applications requiring high water recovery.
This treatment train consists of free oil removal followed by degasification, chemical softening, media filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). The pretreatment before the RO system reduce hardness, metals and suspended solids in the feed water. Operating at an elevated pH, this system is effective in controlling biological, organic, and particulate fouling, eliminates system scaling with high salt and boron rejection.
OPUS Technology benefits:
- High water recovery with low waste volumes
- Adjusts to feedwater variability
- Low energy consumption