ROSS™ Technology| Frac Flowback and Produced Water Treatment

Treatment for Reuse and Enhanced Oil Recovery

ROSS combines MULTIFLO Softening and Ceramic Membranes
 

ROSS™ Technology is a an effective method for treating upstream produced water generated from oil exploration and production operations. This unique technology combines Veolia's proprietary MULTIFLO™ high-rate chemical softening process with ceramic membrane technology to generate high-quality water suitable for reuse in steam flooding, water flooding and fracking operations.

Applications for ROSS Technology:

  • Shale Oil Production: Treatment of frac flowback and produced water for reuse as frac water
  • Water Flooding: Treatment of produced water for injection to achieve enhanced oil recovery
  • Steam Flooding: Treatment of produced water for steam generation to achieve enhanced oil recovery

Benefits of ROSS Technology

  • Effective removal of scale formers (hardness, silica, iron, barium, strontium)
  • Effective removal of particulates (oil, solids, bacteria, algae, clay)
  • Absolute barrier to particulates, minimizing downstream carryover during upsets
  • High-system recovery rates (>98%), minimizing liquid waste generated
  • Excellent thermal resistance (up to 210°F)
  • Compact treatment system; 30% less space requirement than conventional approach
  • Packaged, modular, shop-fabricated, pre-piped, pre-wired treatment system

Water Reuse in Shale Oil Applications

ROSS for shale oil applications
 

ROSS™ Technology is ideal for treatment of flowback and produced water for reuse in fracking operations. In the process, the feed water is first treated in Veolia's high-rate chemical softening and thickening technology called MULTIFLO™ for removal of scale formers. This process utilizes a proprietary draft tube mixing technology, Turbomix®, to assist in the formation and separation of crystalline solids. These dense solids (6 to 10% by weight) are then removed in a settling zone using lamella plates. Excess solids are intermittently purged from the MULTIFLO for dewatering and subsequent landfill disposal.

The softened water and crystalline solids are then processed through ceramic membrane ultrafiltration technology. Operated in crossflow mode, the membranes remove free oil, suspended solids and bacteria to very low concentrations in a single step. The solids from the ultrafiltration are continuously recycled to the crystallization tank of the MULTIFLO, providing seed for crystal growth. The treated water from the ultrafiltration process is neutralized and reused in the shale oil operations as frac water, reducing fresh water demand.

Performance Data - Shale Oil Reuse Applications

Contaminant Feed Water MULTIFLO Effluent CeraMem Effluent

Total hardness, ppm as CaCO3

500 - 20,000

< 20

< 20

Total iron, ppm

3 - 80

< 1.0

< 0.5

Free oil, ppm (>20 μm)

10 - 300

< 10

< 0.2

Total suspended solids, ppm

10 - 300

< 10

< 0.2

Bacteria, cells / ml

100 - 9,999

100 - 9,999

non-detect

Benefits

  • Enables reuse of produced water as frac water
  • Reduces fresh water demand
  • Lessens dependency on natural fresh water resources
  • Reduces produced water disposal costs
  • Minimizes truck traffic for water transportation
  • Reduces frac chemical demand
  • Lowers lease operating expenses

Water Flood Applications

ROSS for water flood applications
 

In water flooding operations, a deaeration gas stripper is added to the basic ROSS™ System. The deaerator removes dissolved oxygen from the treated water, preventing corrosion in the injection piping network in the oilfield.

Performance Data - Water Flood Applications

Contaminant Feed Water MULTIFLO Effluent CeraMem Effluent Deaerator Effluent

Total hardness, ppm as CaCO3

1,000 - 5,000

< 20

< 20

< 0.5

Total iron, ppm

2 - 30

< 1.0

< 0.5

< 0.5

Free oil, ppm (>20 μm)

10 - 300

< 10

< 0.2

< 0.2

Total suspended solids, ppm

10 - 300

< 10  

< 0.2

< 0.2

Bacteria, cells / ml

100 - 9,999

100 - 9,999 

non-detect

non-detect

Oxygen, ppm

2 - 8

2 - 8

2 - 8

< 0.05

Benefits:

  • Increases reservoir injectivity rates
  • Enhances recovery of oil from formation
  • Reduces plugging of formation pores with particulates and scale deposits
  • Lessens injector pipe scaling issues
  • Minimizes injector piping corrosion
  • Reduces injection chemical demand
  • Lowers lease operating expenses

Steam Flood Applications

ROSS for steam flood applications
 

In steam flooding applications, a Weak Acid Cation (WAC) Ion Exchange (IX) Softener is added to the basic process to reduce the hardness to lower levels. The WAC IX Softener is regenerated with acid and caustic, and regeneration waste is sent for deep well disposal.

Performance Data - Steam Flood Applications

Contaminant Feed Water MULTIFLO Effluent CeraMem Effluent WAC IX Effluent

Silica, ppm

200 - 350

< 20

< 20

< 20

Total hardness, ppm as CaCO3

100 - 2,500

< 20

< 20

< 0.1

Total iron, ppm

2 - 3

< 1.0

< 0.5

< 0.1

Free oil, ppm (>20 μm)

10 - 300

< 10

< 0.2

< 0.2

Total suspended solids, ppm

10 - 300

< 10

< 0.2

< 0.2

Benefits

  • Reduces silica scaling on steam generators
  • Reduces steam generator pigging costs
  • Increases steam quality from 65% to 80%
  • Higher thermal efficiency: more heat, less water injection
  • Less waste generation (<20%) than conventional approach
  • Lowers steam generator scale inhibitor costs
  • Reduces blowdown volume and handling costs
  • Increases steam generator uptime availability
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